The Texas cichlid (Herichthys cyanoguttatus, formerly Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum) is a freshwater fish of the cichlid family. Also known as Rio Grande cichlid, this species is originated from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas and Northeastern Mexico, particular on the sandy bottom of deep rivers. This is the only cichlid species native to the United States, and has been introduced by man as far North as Central Texas where they live in various lakes and rivers.The Rio Grande cichlid has a large grayish high-backed body with bright blue scales and two dark spots, one at the center of the body and another and the end of its tail. Adult males have a large hump on their heads. This species can grow up to 30 cm. They have the ability to protrude their jaw 4.9% standard length which allows them to have a diet of less than 1% evasive prey. They prefer a water temperature range of 68–82°F (20-28°C), a pH range of 6.5-7.5, and a water hardness of 5-12 dH.These fish have been deliberately and accidentally introduced into the wild throughout the subtropic southern United States from Texas to Florida (where water temperatures rarely dip below 48°F / 9°C), where they have flourished, and are often caught incidentally when fishing for sunfish and other panfish. They are regularly targeted in both South Texas, where they are known as “Rio Grande Perch” and Northern Mexico, where they are known as “Mojarra de Norte. In Lake Guerrero, which is recognized for its excellent largemouth bass fishing, the Texas cichlid is considered by locals to be the best eating fish in the lake. Their taste is similar to commercially raised tilapia, an African ciclid species to which they are distantly related. The fish is caught on light tackle with small hooks (#4 to #8) like that used for other panfish, with live crickets making excellent bait, however they will strike a wide variety of baits. They fight similarly to bluegill sunfish, making tight circles and then darting off in a broadsided run. Average size of adult fish in the wild is 5-6 inches, and 1 pounds, with 2 pounds not being uncommon.